Update on the weekend downtime

All the work planned for the weekend has been completed and I thought that you might want to know what we actually did.

The main reason for the downtime was to add an extra Terabyte (1000 gigabytes) to the Shared Storage. The Shared Storage is where the Home Directories (f:) and Shared Directories (g: and m:) are stored. Some of the servers that run GO, the Email servers and some of the web servers also use the Shared Storage. This is why a wide range of services needed to be turned off during the work. The extra storage will be used to increase the space available for home directories, shared folders and email. It will also be used for the virtualisation project that is due to start in December.

We also applied some software patches to the Novell network servers, the software patch was the latest service patch from Novell and should resolve a number of minor issues we have been experiencing on some of the servers.

GO was also down to allow us to re-install one of the GO servers, this needed to be done to allow us to make some further improvements in the next week or so. We are going to trial a load balancing product, in the event of a server failure the load balancer will redirect users to another server without them ever being aware that there was a problem. We can test the load balancing product without any further disruption or downtime.

We have also done some tidying up and moving around of hardware in the main server room, this is to make room for the new servers that will be needed to provide IT Services to the new Faculty of Health building. I’ll post more about this nearer the time.

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Salford Software Technical Update Event – 30th October

Having recently joined the Core Services team this will be my very first (of many) blogs as Senior Core Services Officer.

Salford Software

One company we work closely with in IT Services is Salford Software, based in Mancheser our reseller of choice for all Novell products and support invited us to their ‘Technical Update Day’ on the 30th October.

So it was time to cram the team into a Grab ‘n Go car and head to Lancashire Cricket Club for the event that was designed to update there customers with the changes in the next releases of Novell products.

Misjudging the M62 traffic we arrived there in plenty of time, in fact we were the first people there which allowed us to take advantage of the jugs of coffee and plates of biscuits laid on for us! A good start to be fair!……

First up was Matt Dunkin from Salford Software, now pre-sales he talked about Novell’s ZenWorks Configuration Manager.

Edge Hill has been using ZenWorks (Zen) for years now in some degree to deliver policy driven network applications to the staff and students desktop as well as enabling us to remote control users pc’s when they phone the IT helpdesk for support.

Historically the ZenWorks suite of applications has soley used Novell eDirectory for the storage of it’s configuration objects and polices. As Matt pointed out 60% of all ZenWorks customers (new and old) are now Microsoft only houses.

The big change in this release is that they have moved all the ZenWorks config into a SQL database (supported currently are Microsoft SQL Server with Oracle support coming in a later service pack expected Feb 2008). I would of liked to see that the other way round but thats my old faithfull Oracle DBA side coming through!

With the ZenWorks config out the way this leaves the user authentication to any supported LDAP directory, Novell eDirectory/Active Directory etc.

This move increases the market for the product greatly and they are hoping for a bigger adoption of ZenWorks suite across the board.

Some new features of the new version include:

  • A single web Interface to configure the all parts of the ZenWorks system
  • Microsoft Vista support for desktop management
  • All communications between individual components now utilize the SOAP protocol and not NCP
  • The software now updates itself from update repositories on the internet
  • The software is more scalable as you can run individual components/tasks on separate dedicated servers as before one server did everything.

Next on the stage was Chris Hyde from Novell talking about the new features in Open Enterprise Server 2 on Linux. Basically this is the suite of Novell Services (File Storage/Printing/GroupWise Email/Cluster Services and eDirectory etc) running on the SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 platform.

You can see a big push from Novell now to get NetWare customers to migrate all the servers to the Linux platform. With this release of OES they are providing an optimized version of NetWare 6.5 that runs in the Xen virtual environment. There intention, that customers migrate to OES on Linux for new services and move there old NetWare boxes that they can’t do without and turn them into virtual machines. As an when they are ready customers can migrate there NetWare services to the Linux equivalents.

Die hard NetWare fans may see this as the end of NetWare but an advantage of virtualizing is that soon hardware support for the NetWare OS will no longer continue to exist but it will run happily on newer hardware for years to come under a virtual environment as it won’t know the difference!

One of the features arriving in OES 2 that I am excited about is DST, your thinking not another 3 letter acronym! This stands for ‘Dynamic Storage Technology’ and Novell are raving about this. Basically it allows customers to define policies to recognize active and stale data and automatically moves it to the appropriate storage device as the data’s status changes. You can use this to put active (more important) data on high-end storage devices such as your Netapp SAN for quick access with regular nightly backups and inactive or stale data (maybe data not accessing for months/years, or less business critical data such as MP3s, Images etc) can be moved automatically to the cheaper, slower storage that has a less regular backup schedule. This enables better use of your expensive storage hardware and reduces backup times and administration.

All this is seamless to you, the end user, you still only see one volume! For example a staff or students home directory (F: drive) appears the same as it always has even though some of your files may be stored on the cheaper kit whereas your important documents you update regularly are getting a nightly backup and can be accessed fast!

Once lunch was polished off, Matt again took the stage to discuss Novell Cluster Services for Linux. We have been using Cluster Services on NetWare for a couple of years now to run services such as GroupWise Email, Shared Directories and Home Directories, the University Intranet. In this session we were shown some tips ‘n tricks Salford Software have picked up from past projects at other institutions and how to successfully install and maintain a stable and highly available cluster of resources using OES 2 on Linux. This will be something we as a team will be looking at in the near future for sure.

As the day drew to a close and the bottles of mineral water were running at a premium Chris Hyde introduced the final demo about a product called ‘Sentinal from Novell’.

This is a security Information and Event Management solution that Novell have recently procured that gathers and correlates security and non-security information from across an organization’s networked infrastructure e.g User Login Failures, Password Changes, Firewall logs, Unix Syslogs, Windows event logs and server access logs. The list of devices and types of information it can gather is endless.

This product sucks in all the raw data from all your various sources and normalizes it into some kind of order to make sense of the data and turn it into useful information, you can then report on this or have it alert you to some event problem, e.g repeated unauthorized access from an IP address or user password failures from 2 geographical locations in close succession or server exploits. You can even get it to fire some work flow off, for example to disable a network account and email some admin user to tell them what has happened and who to deal with next.

As the IT Services department we deal with lots of different pieces of hardware and software ranging from network switches to LDAP servers to Finance Applications each of which has it’s own discrete logging mechanisms, this makes seeing the bigger picture alot more difficult but I can see uses for this software to pull in all this information into a central repository and allow us to report more easily across the whole range of systems…..This software does it all and could be overkill for Edge Hill but it’s at least food for thought!

I found the day very useful and informative and even though we may not get around to implementing all the software goodies mentioned in the near future we can at least find a use for the conference freebies!!!
salford freebie mug

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Adventures with SKYPE / VOIP – Part II

A few people have asked about my Skype / VOIP adventures so I thought it was about time I posted an update.

The SMC mobile I mentioned in my earlier post arrived and I must admit while the phone is a bit on the chunky side, I quite like it. My first Skype/voip call using the SMC phone was with my dad and he either didn’t understand what I was talking about or he didn’t find the fact that I was chatting over an internet connection as interesting as I did. 🙁

I’ve only come across two problems, one quite major and the other just a bit of an irritation.

The major one is the lack of public wifi spots, this is something that Mike Nolan touches on in the Web Services blog. There are a few hotspots in the Ormskirk area but I’ve only made calls so far using my home wifi or the Edge Hill wifi network. I’m not too disheartened at the moment and I’m looking around for alternatives. A friend pointed me in the direction od The Cloud which provides a network of wifi spots around the UK. I’ve also joined The BT/FON Community, this community agrees to give free wifi access to other members . It’s not a huge community in the UK at the moment, but it is sure to grow over time.

My second problem is the attitude that people have to Skype. When some people find out that I’m using Skype I get a look from them like I’ve just told them that I want to eat their puppy dogs. I’m then usually told one of three things; there are better products than Skype, Skype is dangerous because it creates too much traffic on the network and the last one is that JANET (our internet providers) do not allow Skype. The first one might be true but there are already a number of Skype users at Edge Hill and I was intersted in Skype because it came with my laptop. The second charge that Skype creates too much network traffic is sort of true. Skype could potentially cause a PC to become a Supernode, these are basically PCs running Skype that start to route calls from other users. This has the potential to swamp a netowork with traffic. The makers of Skype have released some guidelines aimed at Universities that allow users to prevent this from happening. There is also a set of windows registry keys that can be downloaded from the internet, these keys will also prevent the Supernode problem. The charge that Janet do not allow Skype does not seem to be true, Janet have written some reports and guidelines around Skype but as I am aware have not banned the software from being used. Most of the Janet reports relate to the problem of Supernodes. I’m going to be contacting Janet for some confirmation, and to ask about their latest take on the use of Skype.

I’m still impressed by Skype and VOIP and I’m using the SMC phone on a regular basis to make calls. I’ve even redirected all calls to my personal mobile phone onto my SMC Skype phone. I’ll update the blog about my experiences again in the next few weeks. I also need to do some research into the locations of the local wifi hotspots.

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and then there were 5 !

Just a quick note to say that the Core Services team is now complete. Neil Malcolm has joined us from the Business System team, I’d also like to welcome Adam Riches to the team. The IT Services offices in the SIC are in the process of being moved around. The Core Services team will be located at the back of the IT Services offices and the IT Services Helpdesk is moving forwards in the office and will be situated closer to the main door.

The Sun Ray Pilot is finishing this Thursday. If you haven’t seen a Sun Ray yet and you want to see what the fuss is about contact me by phone or e-mail and I’ll point you in the direction of the closest trial machine. If the trial is a success they will be deployed into the new Health building at the Ormskirk site, they will also be deployed into the open access areas in the new building.

The Spam Quarantine product is still under trial but we have moved all Edge Hill mail over to this service. The product will remain in trial until our suppliers release a new version of the software in the next few months. The next release of the software promises an improved interface to the quarantine area and a number of other features. We have also made significant changes to the Groupwise system in the past few weeks and this will give the institution a much more reliable internal and external e-mail service.

Virtualisation is still on the agenda and we are in the process of obtaining quotes from suppliers for hardware, software and consultancy. It is likely that we will implement two virtualisation servers and in the first few months of the project we are hoping to virtualise at least 10 servers.

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Adventures with SKYPE / VOIP

I’ve been interested in the use of VOIP and Wifi for sometime, it certainly seems to be the way mobile phone services are going. Skype is one of the many services that uses VOIP technology to allow users to make telephone / video calls via the internet. When I first saw this technology I was really impressed, but I’ve never really thought about using Skype before. The service allows telephone calls to be made from a PC/laptop with very little software configuration and a cheap headphone and microphone set, although there is an impressive range of Skype enabled telephones available. Calls between Skype users are free and users can call other Skype users anywhere in the world. This type of VOIP technology has many potential uses for both staff and students, and I know that there are a number of Skype users currently at Edge Hill. IT Services has talked internally about this type of VOIP technology but we have never really done any serious investigation. My renewed interest in Skype has been sparked because my new laptop came with a Skype compatible telephone. I finally decided to have a go with Skype and see how it worked.

Skype – First Look

I downloaded the software, installed it and was up and running really quickly. It was only when I started looking the software menus that I realised that Skype had a lot more functionality then I was aware of. Voice mail, SMS, Conference calls, Video calls and I was only just scratching the surface. The Skype service also allows users to call BT land lines and mobile telephones (for a small charge), Skype users can also purchase a telephone number to allow them to receive calls from BT land lines and mobile telephones. The more I looked at the software the more I thought of interesting ways to use the technology. If users are not online Skype can also be set to forward the calls onto a mobile telephone or land line (for a small charge)

Skype vs Mobiles

Skype is a clever service but it’s not likely to have BT and the mobile phone companies breaking into a sweat is it? Well not just yet but VOIP technology is becoming more and more popular. Wifi hotspots are becoming more and more widespread and broadband at home is also more common. So is Skype a viable alternative to a mobile telephone ? I think there are three reasons why mobile phones are so popular,

Network Coverage – Mobile phone users can get some level of signal just about anywhere in the country.
User Friendly – Most mobiles are easy to use and are fairly user friendly. You may need a manual for the advanced functions but the basics are usually the same.
Phone Hardware and Design – Mobile phones are designed to be small, portable and quite fashionable.

I’ve been wondering if Skype could match the 3 points above because if it could I would consider using Skype on a regular basis, I might even consider using Skype (or something silimar) in place of my mobile phone. Well let’s break down each point and see how Skype measures up.

Network Coverage – Skype and other VOIP services require the internet. While lots of places have an internet connection to be truly mobile any VOIP service would need to use Wifi. The Edge Hill Campus is Wifi enabled and most users have Wifi at home but that is not really going to be enough for a truly mobile service. Skype uses something call SkypeZones which are basically Wifi hotspots that Skype users can access. The are 11,324 hotspots in the list of SkypeZones in the UK. Skype has also teamed up with The Cloud who provide and impressive network of Wifi hotspots across the UK. Service would not be as comprehensive as the mobile phone network but coverage is improving all the time.

User Friendly – The skype software is fairly user friendly, and there are a number of FAQs and forums where users can get help or make suggestions about the services. The software basics are fairly intuitive and easy to use

Phone Hardware and Design – The basic microphone and headphone sets are fine but are not practical for mobile use,SMC Mobile this is because users would still need access to a PC/Laptop to use the Skype software. There are plenty of internet cafes about but this doesn’t give the mobility that a mobile phone does. There are a number of Wifi mobile phones on the market, the one that caught my eye was the SMC Wifi phone. It looks every bit as good as normal mobile phones available on the market now and comes pre-installed with Skype. There are also dual phones available that plug into a BT line and also a broadband connection, this gives Skype users access to both services.

So could I use Skype instead of a mobile phone? There are not enough Wifi hotspots currently to offer users the same UK wide coverage as a mobile phone but I can certainly make use of Wifi hotspots at work and at home. When I first signed up to use the 3 mobile phone network UK coverage was still quite limited in places. A quick look at the local SkypeZone and Cloud hotspots revealed that there are a number of hotspots around Ormskirk that I can also make use of. What is also interesting that a lot of pubs also have Wifi !!

I’ve looked into the costs of using Wifi hotspots and both SkypeZones and Cloud hotspots charge users for access. The charges are either pay as you go or a monthly flat rate. If I signed up for one (or both) of these services I would still be paying less then I do a month on my mobile phone rental. Calls from Skype to BT and mobile phones are also cheaper than calls on my current mobile phone tariff, and if I can talk some friends into using Skype calls between us will be free. I’m quite impressed by the SMC Wifi phone, and I’ve even found one on the internet for £50 which is over half the price of some other retailers. I’ve been thinking about trying this out and taking into account all the above I think I will give it a go. My mobile phone contract is due up in a few months and I’m interested in investigating if Skype over Wifi can be used on a daily basis. If it can provide a fairly reliable service I might not renew my mobile phone contract and switch to Skype. I’m going to order an SMC phone and see what happens. I’ll post something once the phone arrives and I start using it, as part of the test I will set my mobile phone to forward all calls to my Skype number. If anything this investigation will be interesting and I’m sure that if I didn’t want to move to Skype on a permanent basis a willing ebayer would take the phone off my hands 😉

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Talk Like A Pirate Day – 19th September

Ahoy there me hearties !!!!

I’ve been aware of ‘International Talk Like a Pirate Day’ for a number of years, and every year it becomes more and more well known. It is fast approaching this year so I thought I’d do my bit to pass on the word. On the 19th I won’t be answering the phone by shouting “Ahoy!!!!” , but I might have a go at some proper pirate banter around the office. If you want to join in there is an online ‘How to talk like a pirate guide’. This year TLAP is raising money for Marie Curie Cancer Care by releasing a pirate song called ‘On a Pirate Ship’. The song will be available on indiestore.com and the Itunes shop, with the proceeds going to the charity. The video to the song is linked in below. Forget ye not about ‘Talk Like a Pirate Day’, lest ye be keelhauled !!

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Student Groupwise – Light at the end of the tunnel

The student Groupwise email service has suffered a number of access related and performance problems in the past two weeks, I thought it was about time I posted something on the blog about this.

Core Services have been doing some system housekeeping. We have recently condensed 7 student post offices down to 3 post offices. The main driver for this was to reduce the number of email (and network) accounts from a whopping 40,000+ down to a more reasonable and manageable amount. In the years before the Identity Management software was implemented account creation was a manual process, and there was no easy or accurate way to separate the old accounts from the accounts that were on the network and email system legitimately. This led to the number of accounts on the network growing quite rapidly and becoming unmanageable.

We have deleted 25,000+ old accounts, we have also moved all the ‘live’ accounts into two post offices. We encountered some problems during these changes, the first of which was that the student Groupwise system ran out of space. We resolved this quite quickly but then the system ran out of space again and then again. We eventually added enough space to allow the system to continue working. This caused more disruption to student Groupwise that we had anticipated.

The main bulk of the other student Groupwise problems have been where users are presented with a ‘Mailbox Unavailable’ message when logging in. We reported this to our external support people, and they passed it to Novell in the USA. They have identified that these error messages are as a result of the large amount of account moves and a large number of stalled account moves and deletes. The stalls probably occurred when the Groupwise system ran out of space. Our External support people have made some changes to our Groupwise servers to all them to process the stalled account moves quickly, these changes are working well. The only problem now is that the servers will need time to catch up with the backlog of account moves, deletes and general changes from the past two weeks. It has been suggested that the backlog will clear on Thursday or Friday, but we will monitor the servers progress during the week.

Once the backlog is clear we feel that the changes we have made will allow us to provide a much better Groupwise service to students this year, although that won’t be any comfort to students who have suffered access problems to their email in the past two weeks. In the next two weeks the Core Services team will also be adding in some extra resilience to the webmail service and the rest of the groupwise service. We will be keeping disruption to the service to a minimum, but if we are to implement these modifications before term starts some disruption in the next two weeks is unavoidable. Where possible we will try and notify users of disruption in advance.

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We have been testing out a SPAM solution for the past 6 weeks. The trial solution takes the form of one single server with some clever software on it that tries to figure out if an e-mail is SPAM or not. I’ve known that the SPAM solution has been working quite hard but I’ve never really looked into it any further…..until about 20 minutes ago that is.

The SPAM software does some clever things to figure out if e-mail server connections coming in is from a legitimate source. If the source can not be verified the the incoming connection is probably SPAM. The software also checks against lists of known SPAM e-mail addresses and mail servers. It then uses the information from these checks to decide if the connecon should be allowed or not. In the past 24 hours the SPAM software rejected 111,481 connection attempts from known spammers and unverifiable sources. Around 90% of all incoming e-mail connections are rejected because they are trying to deliver SPAM. I was quite shocked by this.

Of the incoming e-mail connections that pass the initial tests there are still a number of SPAM messages that get picked off by the software. Before the SPAM software was put into place these messages would have ended up in our GroupWise mail boxes. How many SPAM messages do you thing Edge Hill gets in 24 hours ? Have a guess, 100, 1000, 10,000 ? Would you be suprised to know that the total SPAM messages dealt with by the SPAM solution in the last 24 hours was 19,121 messages? All this is in just one day !! Once I have some stats for a full month I will report back, but I’m sure the numbers will be quite staggering.

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July / August Update

It’s been a while since my last post so I thought I’d add a quick update. Edge Hill has now joined the UK Federation, we are due to install our Shibboleth server in the next two weeks. We have some challenges ahead of us in the next few weeks. The biggest of these challenges is providing services during the scheduled site wide power outages in September. Another big challenge will be the implementation of Novell’s Access Manager, this will form part of the new GO portal that is currently being developed by the Web Services Team. We are also due to draw up some hardware specifications for the VMware project. September will see an on-site trial of the Sun Ray client devices.

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Job Advert

The Core Services Officer post has been re-advertised with a slightly modified job description. It can be viewed on the EH jobs website

We are looking for a fourth person to join our team, full details of the post can be found on the website.

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It’s hard to keep thinking of interesting titles !

Our application to join the UK Federation has been processed and on Wednesday EH become a member of the UK Federation. We are currently testing out our Shibboleth server and in the next week or so we will be hooking it up to the UK Federation. In the next few weeks we will be working with Learning Services to implement federated access to the Athens resources. Just as a random thought, I quite like the word Shibboleth, it’s much better than using an acronym like IDM, SOAP or some kind of code like ISO9001. Shibboleth can be shortened to Shib if your feeling a bit lazy or you can’t remember how to spell it, Shibby if your looking for a name for your cat, or if your feeling a bit light headed after too much caffeine – ShibbyWibbyWoo!
If you interested in the origins of the word Shibboleth look no further than Wikipedia. Have a look, it really is quite interesting.

The work scheduled for tomorrow (Saturday) will pave the way for the new version of GO. We will be simplifying the Identity Management Systems we currently have in place. What will this mean for the users ? Well users won’t really see anything different as this work will be done on the behind the scenes stuff. From next week there will be fewer user password problems and fewer problems logging in. The changes will also make it easier for the IT help desks to resolve your network account problems. Once the weekend work is complete we will be moving onto implementing Novell Access Manager This will also form part of the new version of GO.

There is a group of us going to visit Sun Microsystems on Tuesday. We are going to see the Sun Ray thin client devices. I’ve mentioned these devices in a previous post. It is quite possible that EH users will see machines like these (or something similar) replacing PCs on desktops around the institution. I’ll post something here when we get back.

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And then there were 3 !

I’m pleased to announce that David McCallum and Stephen Timson will be joining the Core Services Team on the 1st August. They have been appointed to the Senior Core Services Officer roles. I’m sure they will be posting here quite soon !

On Monday I will be picking up the applications for the recent Core Services Officer post advert. We will be interviewing in the next two weeks.

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Job Advert Deadline

The closing date for applications for the vacant Core Services Officer post is Friday. The job advert can be found on the EH jobs website

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Missing your SPAM?

Week 2 of the trial of our new anti-spam solution is upon us. Initial feedback from the users is good but we’ll be asking for some formal feedback later on in the trial. A few comments have been made about the speed of the quarantine area website. The website can be a bit slow at times, but there’s a very good reason for this. If we were to go live with the product we would have multiple units in place to deal with the load, we currently only have one. If we decide to buy into this product we will purchase additional units which will speed up the service. All incoming e-mail is being scanned by the new anti-spam product, by the end of this week all our out going e-mail will be scanned by the new product as well.

Our suppliers have also been looking in on the trial and they have gained some useful information by watching our use of their product. They have made a commitment to make some changes to the Quaratine area website to improve performance. I am having a review of the trial with our suppliers on the 18th July, and then a final review on the 27th July. If you have any questions for our suppliers or any comments that you would like me to pass on please e-mail me or post a comment here.

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USB pens – Friend or Foe?

I generally try and avoid any kind of mobile media. The number of floppy disks and cd-roms I’ve lost, broken or accidentally overwritten doesn’t really bear thinking about. Along came USB pens that could be attached to a keyring but then the early ones were big and chunky and I still managed to lose them. The latest USB pens I’ve seen can hold 8GB+ of data and as useful as that sounds I’m still in no hurry to buy one. If I was to load up a USB pen with 8GB of data I’d lose it in a few weeks and apart from the monitary loss for the pen, what about the cost in terms of the data lost? I can copy all my work documents and possibly confidential data onto an 8GB pen and carry it with me. What if my the data on my pen drive was confidential staff reviews or budget spreadsheets. The chances are that it would be picked up by someone who would then have a look at the data to see what was on it. If the data is of no use to the person that finds the pen, it is more than likely going to be formatted off and kept by the person who found it. Does that sound cynical ??? There have been a few times in the past year that I’ve been asked ‘Have you lost your keys?’ or ‘Have you lost a wallet?’ I have never been asked ‘Have you lost a USB pen?’

When I first stared working in IT one of the Golden Rules was that you never put a floppy disk into a networked PC without checking it first for viruses and other security risks. There was always the risk that someone might leave an infected disk around with the hope that another curious user would pick up the disk and have a look at the contents. The disk would then infect the PC and take advantage of any privilges the user had on the network. After reading an article in PC PRO magazine by one of the magazines contributing editors Davy Winder it now seems that USB pens are being purchased by hackers, infected with a trojan or something just as nasty and then dropped outside offices and places of work. You can probably guess what happens next !
As the size of the drives increases users have been installing their own Operating systems systems onto them, their own hacking tools and all kinds of images and other media. It’s quite easy to download a selection of pictures and movies and carry them with you, this makes detection of inappropriate files difficult.

The good news is that USB pen makers are addressing some the the security issues with biometrics , encryption and passwords. The bad new is that as always this new technology is costly. The Stealth MXP drive that Davey Winder talks about in his article is not exaclty cheap. If a CD-ROM or floppy disk is lost the cost to replace them would be less than a pound. With USB pens costing £15 – £200+ they present a much bigger dilema to anyone finding one.
Until these secure drives come down in price I’ll hang off buying one, and I’ll be thinking twice before I plug any USB pen into my computer at work. USB pens are really asy to use, but we must always be aware that USB pens are subject to the same security risks as every other type of media. It’s worth remembering that if you find a USB pen on the floor it may not have been lost, it might have been placed there for someone to pick up.

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