• County lines: the dark realities of life for teenage drug runners

    Grace Robinson, Edge Hill University; James Densley, Metropolitan State University , and Robert McLean, Northumbria University, Newcastle “County lines” is a term used by the police to describe a growing practice among criminal gangs: when demand for drugs fails to meet the supply in major cities, gangs travel to remote rural areas, market towns or […]

  • Young gang members also at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder

    Grace Robinson, Edge Hill University Until recently, researchers have associated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with being a victim of trauma. Now, new findings from the US suggest that the act of killing or perpetrating violence could be even more traumatic than being a victim. A condition often experienced by war veterans, PTSD can cause nightmares, […]

  • How gangs are exploiting children to do their dirty work

      Grace Robinson, Edge Hill University Children as young as 12 have been reported to be doing drug runs in London. Targeting the most vulnerable young people in society – usually looked-after children or those already known to social services – organised crime gangs are using grooming tactics to coerce, manipulate and force young children […]