Re Lancastrianising Leonora

Cannes gets an added dose of drama as Netflix makes its festival debut

Roger Shannon, Edge Hill University

The red carpet has been rolled out and the stars are taking their photo calls as the aristocracy of the film industry gathers at the Palais des Festivals in Cannes for the 70th annual film festival. From Afghanistan to Zambia, film makers, buyers, screenwriters, distributors, critics, academics and cineastes bunker down together for 12 days of communal cinematic consumption in dark rooms interspersed with heady business and critical discussion in the glare of the Mediterranean sunlight. The Conversation

Opening the 2017 Festival is French director Arnaud Desplechin’s Ismael’s Ghosts, which is screening out of competition and kicks off a line up that includes 49 films from 29 countries, 12 of them by female directors.

The festival groups its selection (invited from more than 1,000 submitted films) into a number of strands: “the Competition”; “Un Certain Regard”; “Director’s Fortnight” and “Critic’s Week” all of which have their own programme of films. Complementing these strands are special events such as “Midnight Screenings”, “Cannes at 70” screenings, “Cannes Classics” and “Out of Competition” screenings – including, this year, a new thriller from Roman Polanski.

Thierry Frémaux, the Festival’s artistic director, is in charge of selection – and this year his choice is characterised by a lower number of Hollywood films than usual. He has also gone for a more pronounced political tone in the films, on themes such as migration, sex trafficking and the refugee crisis. Another feature of this year’s selection is the screening of films financed by media streaming platforms, including Netflix and Amazon, and the inclusion of “cinematic” television dramas.

Strong competition

The competition films compete for the festival’s Palme d’Or, its most prestigious award – which was won last year by Ken Loach for I, Daniel Blake. This strand includes a number of Cannes regulars – directors such as Michael Haneke, Lynne Ramsay and Sofia Coppola in a programme of 19 films from more than a dozen countries.

Haneke’s 12th film, Happy End, brings together French actor Isabelle Huppert with the UK’s Toby Jones in a story set in Calais which explores the ongoing refugee crisis and a family’s moral blindness to suffering on its doorstep. Haneke, who is from Austria, has already been awarded the Palm d’Or twice before for The White Ribbon (2009) and Amour (2012).

Scottish filmmaker Lynne Ramsay, who was last at the festival in 2011 with her adaptation of Lionel Shriver’s We Need To Talk About Kevin, will present You Were Never Really Here – which was jointly developed by the UK’s Film4 and BFI and features US star Joaquin Phoenix in a thriller set within the world of sex trafficking.

Meanwhile, another festival favourite, Sofia Coppola, is in Cannes with her updated version of the 1971 Clint Eastwood classic The Beguiled, which stars Nicole Kidman, Kirsten Dunst and Colin Farrell.

New players

The inclusion in the competition strand of two Netflix-funded films caused a heated controversy in the days before Cannes – which will doubtless continue throughout the festival. Noah Baumbach’s The Meyerowitz Stories and Okja by the Korean director Bong Joon-ho are both Netflix original productions, and represent titles that will air on the media streaming platform before being seen in commercial film theatres – if at all.

There were rumours that these two Palme d’Or contenders (and possibly also those funded by Amazon Studios) would be deselected and not screened at Cannes. This was due to pressure from French exhibitors who are concerned that Netflix-backed films may not be released for screening in French cinemas. However, the festival’s organisers have confirmed that the Netflix titles will indeed be screened – but that the festival rules will be changed for 2018 so that all films in competition will have to be guaranteed a French theatrical release and not reserved for subscribers to Netflix or Amazon.

In coming to this decision, Cannes has opted to welcome new funders of cinema such as Netflix, while at the same time reaffirming its commitment to the traditional mode of theatrical exhibition of film in France and beyond.

In future, any film wishing to compete in competition at Cannes will have to commit itself to being distributed in French cinemas. As Netflix and Amazon (and other new players in this field) continue to disrupt traditional business models for the financing, production and consumption of film, it will be a challenge for international film festivals (such as Berlin, Venice, London and Sundance) to respond in positive ways to accommodate these new production models.

Small screen, big impact

Rival events in the environment of the film and television industry (for example, a proposed Cannes TV Festival in 2018 and more tolerant selection criteria at other international Film Festivals, such as at SxSW in the US) have prompted the Cannes Film Festival to sever its stone wall resistance to television drama series.

With the admission of Twin Peaks and Top of the Lake into its 2017 programme, Cannes’ hitherto unbreachable “no TV series” rule has been broken. To some die-hard cinephiles, this is akin to having the TV barbarians not just at your door – but ransacking your living room. It’s the first time that television in an episodic form has been invited to Cannes – and it marks a significant step in a new direction.

Twin Peaks was originally produced in 1990 and 1991 for ABC television and was followed by a feature film in 1992. Twin Peaks: Fire Walk With Me – which David Lynch devised as a prequel to the television series – was screened at the Cannes Film Festival in 1992 and was loudly booed. Top of the Lake aired on BBC in 2013 to great acclaim.

Both television series come from auteurs (David Lynch, Jane Campion) whose cinematic credentials as past winners of the Palme d’Or at Cannes (Wild At Heart; The Piano) are watertight – and in that regard it makes the Cannes decision more palatable than it might have been. Because it’s now very clear that, for all that Cannes is revered as a movie festival, the TV and streaming genies are now out of the bottle and on show.

Roger Shannon, Professor of Film and Television & Director, Institute for Creative Enterprise (ICE), Edge Hill University

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Here’s why St Patrick’s day and ‘the craic’ are two of Ireland’s greatest myths

The Conversation

Paddy Hoey, Edge Hill University and David Shaw, University of Liverpool

There are two world famous symbols of Irish culture: St Patrick’s day, and the Irish pub – both synonymous with drinking and “good craic”. But history tells us that these icons of Irish identity were first conceived far away from Ireland. Since then, these phenomena have become a tangle of mythology, religion and politics; inseparable from – but hardly authentic to – the modern nation.

In fact, the first celebration of St Patrick – patron saint of Ireland – was organised in Boston by members of the Charitable Irish Society, in 1737. The original society rules made the organisation exclusively Protestant, and other early celebrations were also organised by Protestant officers in the British Army.

St Patrick’s day really increased in profile during the era of mass emigrations which began in the 19th century. It gradually became a celebration of what it means to be Irish in North America.

Chicago goes all out for St Paddy’s day … by dyeing its river green.
Asten/Flickr, CC BY-NC

As the number of Catholics moving to North America increased after the Great Hunger, St Patrick’s day celebrations also became a demonstration of the increasing social and political power of Catholic Irish Americans. The celebrations were as varied as the emigrants themselves: middle-class dinner societies existed cheek-by-jowl with drunken, riotous street celebrations.

Wearing the green

At the start of the 20th century, the “wearing of the green” had spread as far as New Zealand, and the celebration was considered necessary to maintain good spirits among the colonists. By contrast, St Patrick’s day in Ireland was a relatively sober affair until quite recently. It was not until 1903 that it became an official holiday, and for decades it was a day of holy observance and reflection. Dublin didn’t have its first parade until 1931, and pubs were closed on St Patrick’s day until the 1970s.

But St Patrick’s day hasn’t always brought people together. In fact, it has long concealed many of the divisions within the Irish diaspora. People who did not conform to religiously conservative Irish American society were ignored or excluded. For instance, the Irish Lesbian and Gay Organisation was barred from marching in official St Patrick’s day parades in New York until this year.

What’s more, in Britain, sporadic outbreaks of violence during “the Troubles” – a bloody, 30-year ethno-nationalist conflict – made St Patrick’s day a topic of contention from the late 1960s onward. It wasn’t until the 1980s that St Patrick’s day became visible in the UK once more, and in 2002 London launched its annual festival in Trafalgar Square.

This process has marked the re-acceptance of Irish culture both in Britain and abroad – partly due to the success of Riverdance, boy bands such as Boyzone and Jedward and the twin absurdities of Father Ted and Mrs Brown’s Boys.

Scholars have noted that, instead of holding up a mirror to the Irish, St Patrick’s day depicts them as they wished to be seen – congenial, convivial, public spirited and united. Multi-national corporations picked up on this, and saw an opportunity to capitalise on “Brand Ireland”. Their weapon of choice? The Irish-themed pub.

Commercial craic

Rather than recreating the traditional Dublin alehouses so vividly captured by James Joyce in Ulysses, Irish-themed pubs were conceived to “commodify the craic”, and packed with affectations borrowed from Irish America’s fevered perception of the “old country”. The upside down bikes, signposts to obscure towns and pictures of gap-toothed alcoholics and red-haired colleens you’ll see in “O’Malley’s” and “Flanagan’s” are about as Irish as Tom Cruise in Far and Away.

In particular, Guinness saw the development of the Irish-themed pub on the global stage as a means of greatly increasing consumption of its products which – after the 1997 merger that created the parent company, Diageo – also included Smirnoff vodka and Johnnie Walker scotch whisky. Not exactly “authentic” Irish fare.

Bells and whistles.
Un ragazzo chiamato Bi/Flickr, CC BY-SA

In the 1990s, the Irish-themed pub became a presence on British high streets and city centres. Pub chains were suffering from falling numbers of drinkers, who were alienated by the cavernous cathedrals to the video juke box, live sport and insipid lager. Guinness and others introduced reproductions of Irish pubs, hoping to bring a distinctive ethnic experience to stagnant high streets.

Today, most Irish pubs have little to do with Irish culture, and compete with traditional bars in more than 53 countries around the world. By seeking to sell the same “authentic” cultural experience all around the world, Irish pubs achieve just the opposite.

Despite this humbuggery, denizens of Irish pubs will still seek out “the craic” on March 17, in celebration of a Welsh man known for chasing snakes out of a country which never had any in the first place. The Irish are famous for their myth-making, and the legends behind St Patrick’s day and the Irish pub are some of the best yet. Sláinte!

Paddy Hoey, Lecturer in Media, Edge Hill University and David Shaw, PhD Candidate, University of Liverpool

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.