Aintree – The Effect of COPD Severity and Study Duration on Exacerbation Outcome in Randomized Controlled Trials

Author(s): Eriksson G.; Calverley P.M.; Jenkins C.R.; Anzueto A.R.; Make B.J.; Lindberg M.; Fageras M.; Postma D.S.

Source: International Journal of COPD; May 2017; vol. 12 ; p. 1457-1468

Publication Date: May 2017

Publication Type(s): Article

Abstract:Background: When discontinuation in COPD randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unevenly distributed between treatments (differential dropout), the capacity to demonstrate treatment effects may be reduced. We investigated the impact of the time of differential dropout on exacerbation outcomes in RCTs, in relation to study duration and COPD severity. Methods: A post hoc analysis of 2,345 patients from three RCTs of 6- and 12-month duration was performed to compare budesonide/formoterol and formoterol in moderate, severe, and very severe COPD. Outcomes were exacerbation rate, time-to-first exacerbation, or discontinuation; patients were stratified by disease severity. Outcomes were studied by censoring data monthly from 1 to 12 months. Results: In patients treated with budesonide/formoterol, annualized exacerbation rates (AERs) were comparable for each study duration (rate ratio [RR] =0.6). With formoterol, the AER decreased with study duration (RR =1.20 at 1 month to RR =0.86 at 12 months). There was a treatment-related difference in exacerbation rates of 45%-48% for shorter study durations (Copyright © 2017 Eriksson et al.

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – Overview of Ultrasound Appearances of Lymph Nodes

Author(s): Griffin C.; Magilton Griffin L.

Source: Ultrasound; May 2017; vol. 25 (no. 2)

Publication Date: May 2017

Publication Type(s): Conference Abstract

Abstract:The main purpose of this abstract is to help clarify the importance of the role of ultrasound in the assessment of lymph nodes (LNs) throughout the body. The assessment of LNs can be confusing as, depending on the anatomical placement of the nodes in question, the clinical features important in the investigation can vary. This overview aims to show clinical staff the basic features required to fully interrogate and diagnose the LN abnormalities. The assessment of LNs not only helps in the diagnosis of disease, but also will ultimately aid in the patients’ prognosis. The benefits of ultrasound when compared to other imaging methods are the increased spatial resolution of the modality and the ability to allow for ultrasound-guided sampling with either fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy (CBx). Normal LN anatomy and the sonographic assessment of LNs, including interrogation of size, shape, hilar architecture, cortical thickness, vascularity and echogenicity are explored in this presentation. The LN regions explored in this overview include: head and neck, axillary, para-aortic and inguinal. With these details and example images provided, it is hoped that this will help clinical staff in their understanding of ultrasound appearances for both normal and abnormal LNs. This presentation will be a useful aid for clinicians whilst providing images and text to support the sonographic criteria for differential diagnosis of LN appearances and pathology.

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – The ‘Typical’ Lipoma: A Cross-Discipline Overview of the Ultrasound Appearances

Author(s): Moore R.; Griffin C.; Magilton Griffin L.

Source: Ultrasound; May 2017; vol. 25 (no. 2)

Publication Date: May 2017

Publication Type(s): Conference Abstract

Abstract:There is a large crossover of the presentation of the standard ‘fatty lump’ across multiple disciplines within ultrasound practice. These are seen routinely in head and neck, breast, musculoskeletal (MSK) and general medical ultrasound requests. The purpose of this poster is to aid standardisation of the assessment and diagnosis of the benign lipoma. This presentation includes an overview of the normal ultrasound characteristics of a typical lipoma. These include size, shape, location, vascularity and echogenicity in order to help ultrasound practitioners assess these lesions to produce a consistent and structured report. The reporting of a ‘typical’ lipoma is something that should not be taken lightly as there can be multiple complex features and differential diagnoses that also need to be considered. The aim of this poster is to ensure that ultrasound practitioners are aware of the most common benign features so that it is easy to recognise the lesions that require a more specialist review or complimentary imaging. This poster is a collaboration of highly specialist Ultrasound Advanced Practitioners (of different disciplines), to ensure that all aspects of this common ultrasound finding are reviewed and described in terms that a range of ultrasound practitioners are familiar with. Whilst a typical lipoma can be a finding on almost any ultrasound list, the assessment and reporting of these benign lesions can vary and a standardised approach can aid in these common but complex lesions.

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – Benign and Malignant Ultrasound Features of Breast Lesions

Author(s): Magilton Griffin L.; Griffin C.

Source: Ultrasound; May 2017; vol. 25 (no. 2)

Publication Date: May 2017

Publication Type(s): Conference Abstract

Abstract:The purpose of this poster is to highlight the importance of differentiating between benign and malignant breast lesions. This is the fundamental task of breast ultrasound and will be explored in this poster. The poster is aimed at trainees in breast ultrasound imaging and at providing a reference tool for qualified practitioners. There are several diagnostic features that are used in the assessment of breast lesions, including shape, margin contour, internal reflectivity, through transmission, width-depth ratio, mobility and compressibility. This poster uses example images and easy-to-follow tables to highlight the differences between benign and malignant lesions. The resulting knowledge from this poster will aid in the diagnosis, decision for ultrasound-guided sampling, treatment and ultimately the prognosis of breast lesions. Pictorial-based posters as teaching aids and reference guides are ideal to help act as a reminder for both trainees and the most experienced clinical practitioners to provide the best quality imaging and reports in the assessment of benign and malignant lesions.

Database: EMBASE