Aintree – HOPON (Hyperbaric Oxygen for the Prevention of Osteoradionecrosis): A Randomised Controlled Trial of Hyperbaric Oxygen to Prevent Osteoradionecrosis of the Irradiated Mandible after Dentoalveolar Surgery

Authors: Shaw RJ, Butterworth CJ, Silcocks P, Tesfaye BT, Bickerstaffe M, Jackson R, Kanatas A, Nixon P, McCaul J, Praveen P, Lowe T, Blanco-Guzman M, Forner L, Brennan P, Fardy M, Parkin R, Smerdon G, Stephenson R, Cope T, Glover M.

Source: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019 Mar 6. pii: S0360-3016(19)30288-3.

doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.02.044. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 30851351 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Walton – The Use of IVIg in the Treatment of Inflammatory Polyneuropathies and Myasthenia Gravis at The Walton Centre

Author(s): Kimyongur S.; Hywel B.; Holt J.

Source: The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh; Mar 2019; vol. 49 (no. 1); p. 5-11

Publication Date: Mar 2019

Publication Type(s): Article

PubMedID: 30838984

Abstract:BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin is a blood product used in a variety of medical disorders, usually delivered intravenously (IVIg). Neurology patients, particularly those with inflammatory polyneuropathy, utilise a lot of IVIg. There is a national shortage of immunoglobulin and, thus, pressing need to ensure minimum effective dosing as well as rigorous outcome assessments to assess benefit at treatment start and subsequently, as placebo effects can be strong. METHOD(S): Serial audit of IVIg use at The Walton Centre against national guidelines was carried out through analysis of clinical notes of day unit patients. Review of the national immunoglobulin database and of neurology outpatient notes to benchmark our practice and provide some comparison with the wider nation was also performed. RESULT(S): Serial audit led to improved adherence to guidelines, and analysis of practice identified wide variation in IVIg use. CONCLUSION(S): Local audit and benchmarking of practice can be used to promote quality and consistency of IVIg use across the NHS.

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – The Atlas of the Australopithecus Specimen StW 573 (“Little Foot”)

Author(s): Beaudet A.; Bruxelles L.; Stratford D.; Clarke R.J.; Heaton J.L.; Pickering T.R.; Carlson K.J.; Crompton R.; Jashashvili T.; Jakata K.; Hoffman J.; Dhaene J.

Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology; Mar 2019; vol. 168 ; p. 14-15

Publication Date: Mar 2019

Publication Type(s): Conference Abstract

Available  at American Journal of Physical Anthropology –  from Wiley Online Library Full Collection

Abstract:The Australopithecus specimen StW 573 (“Little Foot”) was discovered in 1997 in Member 2 of the Sterkfontein Formation (South Africa). Besides representing one of the oldest examples of Australopithecus in the southern African fossil record, the StW 573 skeleton is remarkable for its exceptional degree of preservation and completeness. In this regard, StW 573 offers the opportunity to shed new light on the poorly known postcranial anatomy and locomotor behaviour of Pliocene hominins. In particular, meticulous excavation and high-resolution micro-CT scanning of the skull revealed a nearly complete first cervical vertebra cemented by breccia to the back of the maxilla. The atlas of StW 573 is missing only the left transverse process and exhibits slight damage to the tip of the right transverse process. Comparative morphological study indicates a combination of human-like (e.g., mildly concave superior articular facets, posterior expansion of the vertebral canal), ape-like (e.g., prominent anterior tubercle, supero-inferior widening of the posterior arch) and unexpected (i.e., absence of prominent tubercles for attachment of the transverse ligament) traits. Since cervical vertebrae play a major role in directing and stabilizing head movement and because they rarely preserve in the fossil record (i.e., this is the first atlas from Sterkfontein), ongoing comparative morphometric analyses of the atlas of StW 573 will provide new evidence for reconstructing early hominin posture and locomotion.

Database: EMBASE

 

Aintree – The Wrist and Hand of the StW 573 (“Little Foot”)

Author(s): Jashashvili T.; Patel B.A.; Carlson K.J.; Heaton J.L.; Pickering T.R.; Clarke R.J.; Crompton R.; Kuman K.; Beaudet A.; Bruxelles L.; Stratford D.; Mcclymont J.

Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology; Mar 2019; vol. 168 ; p. 113-114

Publication Date: Mar 2019

Publication Type(s): Conference Abstract

Available  at American Journal of Physical Anthropology –  from Wiley Online Library Full Collection

Abstract:The human wrist and hand, as a manipulation organ, has undergone morphological modification over human evolutionary history. As the hand was emancipated from use during locomotion, its structure and proportions changed, and phalangeal curvature reduced. Here, we summarize the initial description and comparison of hand and wrist bones of the StW573 skeleton discovered in the Sterkfontein Member 2 deposit (3.67 Ma) within the Silberberg Grotto, South Africa. Comparative study of StW573 and other Plio- Pleistocene hominins (e.g., Australopithecus afarensis, A. africanus, and A. sediba) demonstrates that geographical separation and adaptation to different habitats and terrain may have affected mosaic morphological adaptations in hand bones. For example, trapezium facet orientation, longitudinal angle, and the length/midshaft proportion of metacarpal 2 are morphologically modern human-like. In contrast, mediolateral base dimensions, head shape, and dorsal tapering of metacarpal heads are more like the features of A. afarensis. Overall, the wrist and hand bones of StW573 share morphometric features with A. afarensis, but they also express their own unique combination of characters. Even though climbing adaptations in the postcranial skeleton may persist in combination with those of bipedal locomotion in both species, the presence long- distance terrestrial bipedalism did not eliminate an arboreal locomotor component. Instead, within the degeneracy, perhaps triggered complexity in partitioning the function of the hand as a locomotor or manipulative organ. In this context, the almost complete set of hand and wrist bones from the same individual provides a unique opportunity to further unravel this complexity.

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood (LADA) is Associated with Small Fibre Neuropathy

Author(s): Alam U.; Jeziorska M.; Asghar O.; Ferdousi M.; Marshall A.; Boulton A.J.M.; Malik R.A.; Petropoulos I.N.; Ponirakis G.; Pritchard N.; Edwards K.; Dehghani C.; Srinivasan S.; Efron N.

Source: Diabetic Medicine; 2019

Publication Date: 2019

Publication Type(s): Article

Available  at Diabetic Medicine –  from Wiley Online Library Full Collection

Abstract:Aim: To assess if latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) is associated with small fibre neuropathy. Method(s): Participants with LADA (n=31), Type 2 diabetes (n=31) and healthy control participants without diabetes (n=31) underwent a detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing, electrophysiology, skin biopsy and corneal confocal microscopy. Result(s): The groups were matched for age (healthy control without diabetes: 53.5+/-9.1 vs. Type 2 diabetes: 58.0+/-6.5 vs. LADA: 53.2+/-11.6 years), duration of diabetes (Type 2 diabetes: 10.0+/-8.3 vs. LADA: 11.0+/-9.1 years) and blood pressure. However, BMI (P=0.01) and triglycerides (P=0.0008) were lower and HbA1c (P=0.0005), total cholesterol (P=0.01) and HDL (P=0.002) were higher in participants with LADA compared with Type 2 diabetes. Peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (P=0.04) and sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (P=0.008) were lower in participants with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults compared with Type 2 diabetes. Intra-epidermal nerve fibre density (P=0.008), corneal nerve fibre density (P=0.003) and corneal nerve branch density (P=0.006) were significantly lower in participants with LADA compared with Type 2 diabetes. There were no significant differences in the other neuropathy parameters. Conclusion(s): Despite comparable age and duration of diabetes, participants with LADA demonstrate more severe neuropathy and particularly small fibre neuropathy, compared with participants with Type 2 diabetes.Copyright © 2018 Diabetes UK

Database: EMBASE

Aintree – Impact of Pre-Enrolment Medication Use on Clinical Outcomes in SUMMIT.

Authors: Vestbo J, Dransfield M, Anderson JA, Brook RD, Calverley PMA, Celli BR, Cowans NJ, Crim C, Martinez F, Newby DE, Yates J, Lange P.

Source: ERJ Open Res. 2019 Feb 25;5(1). pii: 00203-2018.

doi: 10.1183/23120541.00203-2018. eCollection 2019 Feb.

PMID: 30815468 [PubMed] Free PMC Article