Author(s): Ogese M.O.; Elmasry M.; Betts C.J.; Faulkner L.; Jenkins R.E.; French N.S.; Copple I.M.; Antoine D.J.; Goldring C.E.; Park B.K.; Naisbitt D.J.; Malik H.
Source: Toxicological Sciences; Jul 2017; vol. 158 (no. 1); p. 76-89
Publication Date: Jul 2017
Publication Type(s): Article
Abstract:It is now apparent that antigen-specific T-cells are activated in certain patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Since cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells is likely to be critical in determining the outcome of drug exposure, the aim of this study was to profile the signals released by drug-treated hepatocytes and to characterize the impact of these molecules on dendritic cells. Human hepatocytes were exposed to 3 drugs (flucloxacillin, amoxicillin, and isoniazid) associated with DILI potentially mediated by the adaptive immune system as drug-specific T-cells have been isolated from DILI patients, and the metabolite nitroso-sulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO). Hepatocyte toxicity, cytokine release and activation of oxidative stress pathways were measured. Supernatants were transferred to monocyte-derived dendritic cells and cell phenotype and function were assessed. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and lactate dehydrogenase release as well as adenosine triphosphate depletion occurred in a drug-, time-, and concentration-dependent manner with SMX-NO and flucloxacillin, whereas isoniazid and amoxicillin were nontoxic. Furthermore, drug-induced activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 marker genes was observed when hepatocytes were exposed to test drugs. The disulfide isoform of HMGB1 stimulated dendritic cell cytokine release and enhanced the priming of naive T-cells. Incubation of dendritic cells with supernatant from drug-treated hepatocytes resulted in 2 distinct cytokine profiles. SMX-NO/flucloxacillin stimulated secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1alpha, and IL-1-beta. Isoniazid which did not induce significant hepatocyte toxicity, compared with SMX-NO and flucloxacillin, stimulated the release of a panel of cytokines including the above and IFN-gamma, IL-12, IL-17A, IP-10, and IL-10. Collectively, our study identifies drug-specific signaling pathways between hepatocytes and immune cells that could influence whether drug exposure will result in an immune response and tissue injury.
Copyright © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.